上传时间:2014-09-23 来源:intonation

onounce the verb forms of the two words: resign and sign,the[g] sound is silent. So we have the deletion rule: [g] φ/ gn Suprasegmental features-stress, tone, intonation The phonemic ...

Intonation ? What is intonation? ? The melody of language is called intonation. It is the total pattern of pitch changes, i.e., the rising and falling of the voice when a person is speaking, within an utterance. 世界上没有一种语言是用单一的声调说出的, 以英语为例,英语有五种基本语调:升调 (↗)、的降调(↙)、的升降调(∧)、的 降升调(∨)以及平调(→)。一句话除了词 汇意义(lexical meaning)还有语调意义 (intonation meaning)。 英语有四级能区别意义的调高: 1)特高调(extra high),即比正常的声调 高两级,常在感情特别激动或惊讶时使用。 2)高调(high),即比正常的声调高一级, 一般用于语句中关键性的重读词。


4)低调(low),即比正常的声调低一级, ?Semantic Function 语义功能 ? By the semantic function of intonation we mean that intonation may differentiate the meaning of an utterance. ? ?Accentual Function 重音功能 Intonation helps to produce the effect of prominence on syllables that need to be perceived as stressed. Functions of intonation ?Attitudinal Function 表态功能 The tone we use can tell people a lot about our feeling, our circumstances or surroundings。It can indicate our attitude to other people. ?Grammatical Function 语法功能 Intonation is closely related to grammar or a part of grammar Example sentences: Intonation vs. Meaning ? I am so happy to meet you. ? I am sory to hear that your bike was stolen. ? Oh , that's great. ? Oh, you are so lucky... Congratulations. What are the types of intonation? ? Falling ? Rising ? Falling-rising 1)Falling降调 Use falling intonation for definite and complete information. 表示完整和确定,主要用在:陈述句、特殊 疑问句、祈使句、感叹句。 ? ? ? ? He’s studying French. When will you be ready? Stand there still! What a sunny room you have! ? 3. If there is more than one word in the word group (e.g. There were "too "many "people ????there.), ? (1) the stressed syllable of the first important word is the highest in pitch (句中第一个关键词的重读音节的音高最 高 ). ? (2) the stressed syllable of the next important word is a little lower than the previous one in pitch (第一个关 键词重读音节之后,其他关键词的重读音节,其音高依次递降 ). ? (3) all the following unstressed syllables are on the same pitch with the previous important word (每两个关 ? (4) all syllables before the first important word are low (第一个关键词重读音节之前的所有音节都声调低平). ? (5) all syllables after the last important word are low (最后一个关键词重读音节之后的所有音节都声调低平). 键词重读音节之间的非重读音节的音高,和前面一个重读音节的音高 相同 ). ? 总之,降调的特点是头(第一个关键词重读音节之前)尾 (最后一个关键词重读音节之后)低平,第一个关键词重读 音节音调最高,在最后一个关键重读音节上降调,中间各 关键词的音高按楼梯状递降。 ? 图示: ●?? ●?? ● ??? ??? 2) Rising升调 Use rising intonation for indefinite and incomplete information. 表示不完整和不确定;主要用在:一般疑问句,话没 说完;征求意见;较长的陈述句的前一部分。 ?General questions: ?Requests: e.g. Is this true? e.g. Can I help you? e.g. See you later. ?Greetings (on parting): 3) Falling-rising 比较复杂,表示“话里有话”,有“言外之意”, 主 要用在:含有对比的陈述句、含保留意见的 陈述句、 含警告口吻的祈使句。

Incomplete or implied statements: e.g. He’s really hardworking. ? Questions with special meaning or emotion: e.g. He’s going to stay for another week. ? Warning or urgent request: e.g. You must be more careful. Falling-rising Intonation ? It’s very efficient. beautiful) (but not ? Mary, where are you (warm address) ? She’s very young. (I don’t think so.) ? Really? (unbelievable) Fall-rise tone Questions/statements and responses ? -- Do you know ↗German? ? -- I can ↘↗read it. ? --Everyone knows a ↘ bout it. ? -- Well, ↘ not ↗everyone. ? 4. (句子的降升调读法)在采用降升调的句子中,调核 可以处于句子最后一个实词的重读音节上,例如: ? 但是有时候会根据强调信息的需要而发生前移。例如: 总结: ? 总之,一般情况下,降升调的特点是,头(第一个关键词 重读音节之前) 低平,第一个关键词重读音节音调最高, 中间各关键词的音高按楼梯状下降,在最后一个关键词的 重读音节开始降调,到最后一个重读音节(若没有,就是 全句最后一个音节)开始升调,到句末升到中等音高的位 置。

? 图示: ●?? ●?? ● ??? ?? To sum up: ? The English intonation of an English sentence containing a number of level tones takes the form of a slowly descending series of stressed syllables interspersed with unstressed ones. ? 总之,在英式英语中,句子的第一个关键词的重读音节是 最高音,然后句子主体的语调是逐渐降调(gradual descent),首先每个词组word group中,重读音节后面 跟着几个音高相同的弱读音节,然后许多这样的词组(重 读音节+几个同音高的弱读音节)连在一起构成句子,每 个词组中的重音音节的音调都比前个词组低了一些,于是 在音高上形成一个楼梯状的递降结构。关于句子的尾音, 升降调都从最后一个关键词的重读音节开始,在句子最后 一个音节完成。

? 图示: ●?? ●?? ●? ? ??? Structure of an Intonation Unit ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A full tone-group consists of five parts: P = Pre-head 调冠 H = Head 调头 B = Body 调身 N = Nucleus 调核 T = Tail 调尾 Occasionally one part or more parts may be missing, but nucleus is always essential. ( 1 )调冠:句子中第一个重读音节之前的非重 读音节. 如:

There’s plenty of time ( there’s ) It’s nearly the same ( it’s ) ( 2 )调尾:指调心之后的所有音节,分为声调 调尾与降调调尾. 如:

I think so ( so ) Where is it? ( is it ) ( 3 )调头:是句子中的第一个重读音节。如:

Are the student going to be ready? ( student ) ( 4 )调心:是指句子中动调出现的音节,也就是 一般我们所说的有逻辑重音、降调、升调和降升 调所在的音节。它是说话人要传达的信息中心。


Are the student going to be ready? ( ready ) ( 5 )调身:是调头与调心之间的全部音节。如: Are the student going to be ready? ( going to be ) Pre-head of an Intonation Unit ? Any unstressed syllable or syllables that may precede the “head”, or the “nucleus” if there is no head, are called the “prehead”. e.g. I am writing a letter to him. P Head of a Intonation Unit ? The first full stress of a tone unit ? The part that extends from the first stressed syllable up to the nucleus is called the “head” of the intonation unit e.g. I am writing a letter to him. H Body of an Intonation Unit ? The part of an intonation unit lying between its head and its nucleus. ? The main feature of the body is that it glides down gradually. e.g. I am writing a letter to him. B Nucleus Placing 一个句调一般只有一个调心 。但在 其之前完全可以有一个或多个动调,构成调头或调 身的一部分。

They flew to LONdon. (the normal way) They flew TO London. (Direction is highlighted.) They FLEW to London.(Way of traveling is highlighted.) THEY flew to London.(A particular group of people is highlighted.) Tail of an Intonation Unit ? Any syllable or syllables that may follow the nucleus are called the “tail” e.g. I am writing a letter to him. T An Example We are LEARNing a FOReign LANGuage. P H B N T P = Pre-head 调冠 H = Head 调头 B = Body 调身 N = Nucleus 调核 T = Tail 调尾 ? Structures of an intonation unit ? PH NT: We are learning a foreign language. ? PH N: I am afraid we can't go. ? P NT: We hope so. ? P N: It was at night. ? H NT: When are they coming? ? H N: Peter has arrived. ? NT: Look at him. ? N: Help! Features of an Intonation Unit ? Normally a low prehead. ? Normally a high head. ? In the body, the stressed syllables have mostly level tones and they all fall down gradually in pitch. ? The changes in the tail are determined by the nucleus. In a fall, the tail remains a low level tone;

in a Rise or Fall-rise, the tail rises gradually. Stress Rules ? Stress tends to fall on content words within an utterance. ? Only a word’s stressed syllable carries the sentence stress. ? Within an intonation unit, there may be several words receiving stress but only one has the nucleus. ? New information tends to receive prominence and generally occurs towards the end of an utterance.

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